Gynecomastia is a condition in which there is an enlargement of breast tissue in males. This is a common problem during a man’s life-span, in certain age groups it is seen as age-specific or non-morbid (newborns, teenage men, older men).

The cause is usually unknown, the enlargement of male breast tissue can be cause by different medical conditions (tumors of testis, obesity, hypofunction of kidneys and liver, HIV, chronic disease), medications (anabolic steroids, some anti-microbial medications, medications for reducing stomach acid, cardiovascular medications etc.) and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, amphetamine, heroin).

Usually gynecomastia appears on both sides, but can also be performed on one side.

Gynecomasty up to 1 year often reverses by itself.

Pre-surgery consultation
The patient’s expectations and possibilities to realise those wishes are established. Medical history of the patient is discussed, family anamnesis of breast cancer is crucial, inquiring about the changes in the breast and how long the problem has persisted; current usage of medications is discussed, if needed, additional analyses and examinations are prescribed. It is advisable to stabilise the patient’s weight before the surgery.

During the examination, chest and mammary glands examination (changes in tissue, asymmetries, excess skin, the size and position of the nipple-areola) is performed, assessment of skin’s quality. Patient’s chest area will be photographed for the case history. Breasts will be measured, method of operation and the location of future scars will be established.


The surgery is carried out using general anesthesia and usually takes 1-2 hours. The surgery is a combination of removing excess tissue and skin. The method most used is liposuction, if necessary surgical removal of glandular tissue and/or excess skin is performed.


The patient is usually released on the morning after the surgery.

Recovery is individual for every patient. Post-surgery pain relief is necessary during the first days, as there is swelling due to tissue trauma. The incisions have been covered with wound closure tape and bandages up to 2 weeks, after which scar care starts. It is necessary to wear a compression vest at all times during the first 4-6 weeks and with compression another 4-6 weeks. During the first weeks after the surgery, avoiding extraneous exercise is advised.

Possible risks

Immediately after the surgery, long-term swelling, discomfort, changes in sensitivity or loss of sensitivity of the nipple, subdermal haematomas are possible. Repeat surgery might be necessary, if a haematoma develops in the breast. Inflammation is rare. Asymmetry is common. Possibility of shrivelled tissue or discontentedness with the results due to insufficient or excessive tissue removal.


The examples given in the text are general and may vary in individual patients. For the most accurate information, please contact with doctor.